Definitions of terms and regulations

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There are currently 11 glossary in this directory beginning with the letter T.
T cells
A type of white blood cell called lymphocytes. They help your immune system fight germs and protect you from disease.
The midpoint of a dose response curve for a toxic effect.
tertiary care center
A hospital that provides highly specialized medical services, such as neurosurgery, cardiac surgery, cancer treatment, and organ transplantation, to patients referred from other hospitals or primary care physicians. These centers have advanced medical equipment, highly trained medical professionals, and research facilities to diagnose and treat complex medical conditions.
therapeutic effect
The purpose for which we administer a drug.
therapeutic index (TI)
The therapeutic index is the range of doses at which a medication is effective without unacceptable adverse events. Drugs with a narrow TI (NTIDs) have a narrow window between their effective doses and those at which they produce adverse toxic effects.
A integrated group of cells with a common structure, function, or both.
The study of the effects of chemical, physical, or biological agents on living organisms and the environment. Toxicologists evaluate the toxicity of substances and determine safe levels of exposure to protect human health and the environment. They use various methods to identify, measure, and assess the risks associated with toxic substances, including animal studies, epidemiological studies, and computer modeling.
The process by which the genetic information stored in DNA is copied into RNA. This process involves the synthesis of messenger RNA (mRNA) by RNA polymerase, using one strand of DNA as a template. Transcription is a critical step in gene expression, as the mRNA transcript carries the genetic information to the ribosome, where it is translated into a protein.
The synthesis of a polypeptide using the genetic information encoded in an mRNA molecule. There is a change of “language” from nucleotides to amino acids.
type one diabetes
A chronic autoimmune disorder in which the body's immune system attacks and destroys the insulin-producing beta cells in the pancreas. This results in a lack of insulin, a hormone that regulates blood sugar levels. Type one diabetes typically develops in childhood or adolescence, although it can occur at any age. Treatment involves insulin replacement therapy, blood sugar monitoring, and lifestyle modifications to prevent complications.
type two diabetes
A chronic metabolic disorder in which the body becomes resistant to insulin or does not produce enough insulin to maintain normal blood sugar levels. It is usually diagnosed in adults, although it can occur at any age. Risk factors for type two diabetes include obesity, physical inactivity, and a family history of the disease. Treatment involves lifestyle modifications, such as weight loss and regular exercise, as well as medications to lower blood sugar levels.

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