Definitions of terms and regulations

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There are currently 27 glossary in this directory beginning with the letter C.
a unit equivalent to the large calorie expressing heat-producing or energy-producing value in food when oxidized in the body.
A group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells.
Small blood vessels that connect arteries and veins and allow for the exchange of oxygen, nutrients, and waste products between the blood and tissues.
cardiac arrest
The sudden stoppage of the heart.
cardiac congestion
The accumulation of fluid in the lungs causes difficulty breathing.
cardiovascular system
A closed circulatory system with a heart and branching network or arteries, capillaries, and veins.
case report
A detailed report of the diagnosis, treatment, and follow-up of an individual patient. Case reports also contain some demographic information about the patient.
The smallest unit that can live on its own and that makes up all living organisms and the tissues of the body.
central nervous system (CNS)
The portion of the nervous system where signal integration occurs; In vertebrate animals, the brain and spinal cord.
A substance made up of elements, such as hydrogen or sodium.
chemical networks
Chemical networks refer to the complex systems of chemical reactions that occur within living organisms. These reactions involve the formation and breaking of chemical bonds and are essential for all biological processes.
chemo electric
A system that converts chemical energy into electrical energy.
cholinergic system
Produces acetylcholine that reduces the rate on depolarization and repolarization, slowing the heart down.
A cellular structure consisting of one DNA molecule and associated protein molecules. (In some contexts, such as genome sequencing, the term may refer to the DNA alone).
chronic systemic inflammation
A low-grade, long-term immune response that is associated with many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, and cancer. It can be caused by factors such as obesity, stress, and environmental toxins.
An establishment or hospital department where outpatients are given medical treatment or advice, especially of a specialist nature.
A three-nucleotide sequence of DNA or mRNA that specifies a particular amino acid or termination signal; the basic unit of the genetic code.
A protein found in the body's connective tissues, such as skin, tendons, ligaments, and bones. It provides strength and structure to these tissues and is essential for wound healing and tissue repair.
complement system
Part of your immune system that defends your body against injury and foreign invaders like bacteria and viruses that can make you sick. Your complement system activates proteins that work with your immune system to keep you healthy.
A measurement of how much pressure is required to increase lung volume.
compound heterozygosity
The presence of two different mutated alleles at a particular gene locus.
congenital diseases
Diseases that are present at birth.
congestive heart failure
A serious condition in which the heart doesn't pump blood as efficiently as it should.
The impact of a risk on the person, population, or system caused by a risk that is realized.
Crohn's Disease
Chemicals refer to any substance made up of one or more chemical compounds. Chemicals can be natural or synthetic, and are used in a wide range of industries, such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and manufacturing.
One course of treatment with a drug permanently reverses the patient from a disease phenotype to a different healthier phenotype.
The contents of the cell bounded by the plasma membrane.

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