Definitions of terms and regulations

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There are currently 40 glossary in this directory beginning with the letter P.
p value
The probability under the assumption of no effect or no difference (null hypothesis), of obtaining a result equal to or more extreme than what was observed.
parasympathetic nervous system
Your parasympathetic nervous system is a network of nerves that relaxes your body after periods of stress or danger. It also helps run life-sustaining processes, like digestion, during times when you feel safe and relaxed.
paroxysmal ventricular contractions
These contractions when the ventricle beats on its own. Frequent paroxysmal ventricular contractions can disrupt normal electrical activity and can lead to ventricular fibrillation.
particulate matter (particulates)
Particles (tiny pieces) of solids or liquids that are in the air.
pathogenic mutation
A mutation where the gene variant is responsible for causing the disease.
The disordered physiological processes associated with disease or injury.
A person receiving or registered to receive medicinal treatment.
Swelling and irritation of the thin, saclike tissue surrounding the heart (pericardium).
The lining of the heart.
peripheral arterial system
The part of the circulatory system that carries blood from the heart to the arms, legs, and other body parts. It includes the arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart, and the arterioles and capillaries, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues.
peripheral circulatory system
The part of the circulatory system that carries blood from the heart to the arms, legs, and other body parts. It includes the arteries, which carry oxygen-rich blood away from the heart, and the arterioles and capillaries, which deliver oxygen and nutrients to the body's tissues.
peripheral nervous system (PMS)
The sensory and motor neurons that connect to the central nervous system.
The coordinated, rhythmic muscle contractions that move food through the digestive tract. Peristalsis occurs throughout the digestive tract, from the esophagus to the rectum, and is essential for proper digestion and elimination of waste.
pH (potential hydrogen)
A measure of the acidity or alkalinity of a solution, with a range of 0 to 14. A pH of 7 is considered neutral, while pH values below 7 are acidic and pH values above 7 are alkaline. pH is an important factor in many biological processes, and deviations from normal pH can have adverse effects on the body.
A compound manufactured for use as a medicinal drug.
pharmacodynamic properties
The effects of a drug on the body, including how the drug interacts with its target receptor or enzyme, as well as any other physiological changes that result from the drug's activity. Pharmacodynamics is one of the two main branches of pharmacology, the other being pharmacokinetics
pharmacokinetic properties
The way a drug is absorbed, distributed, metabolized, and eliminated by the body. Pharmacokinetics is one of the two main branches of pharmacology, the other being pharmacodynamics. Understanding a drug's pharmacokinetic properties is important for determining the appropriate dosing regimen and avoiding adverse effects.
The physical and observable characteristics of an organism, including its morphology, behavior, and other traits. Phenotype is determined by both genetic and environmental factors, and can vary widely within and between populations. Phenotype is an important concept in genetics, evolutionary biology, and many other fields of biology.
phosphate group
Phosphate groups are chemical groups consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms. They play a crucial role in many biochemical processes, including energy transfer, DNA and RNA synthesis, and signal transduction.
photo chemo electric
A system that converts light into chemical energy, and then to electrical energy.
A system that converts light into chemical energy_
A particle representing a quantum of light or other electromagnetic radiation. A photon carries energy proportional to the radiation frequency but has zero rest mass.
A person qualified to practice medicine.
plasma membrane (cell membrane)
A membrane of lipids and proteins which forms the external boundary of the cytoplasm of a cell or encloses a vacuole and regulates the passage of molecules in and out of the cytoplasm.
A pair of membranes that surrounds the lungs.
An infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus (purulent material), causing cough with phlegm or pus, fever, chills, and difficulty breathing. A variety of organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia.
polyclonal antibody (pAb)
Polyclonal antibodies are antibodies that are produced by different B cells in response to an antigen, resulting in a mixture of antibodies that can recognize and bind to different epitopes (parts) of the antigen. They are used in research and diagnostics, as well as in the treatment of certain diseases.
A polymer is a large molecule made up of repeating subunits (monomers) that are linked together by covalent bonds. Polymers can be natural or synthetic, and they have a wide range of applications in materials science, medicine, and industry.
Proteins are complex biomolecules that perform a wide range of functions in the body, including catalyzing chemical reactions, transporting molecules, providing structure to cells and tissues, and facilitating communication between cells. They are made up of long chains of amino acids that are folded into specific three-dimensional structures.
protein wasting nephropathy
A condition characterized by the loss of protein in the urine due to damage to the kidneys. It can be caused by various underlying conditions, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and autoimmune disorders, and it can lead to malnutrition and other complications if left untreated.
proximal convoluted tubule
A part of the nephron, the functional unit of the kidney. It is located in the renal cortex and is responsible for reabsorbing water, ions, and nutrients from the filtrate that is produced by the glomerulus.
pulmonary arteries
Arteries which carry blood from your heart to your lungs.
pulmonary embolism
A blockage of one or more arteries in the lungs, usually caused by a blood clot that has traveled from another part of the body. It can be life-threatening and requires prompt medical attention. Symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath, and coughing up blood.
pulmonary fibrosis
The accumulation of gunk on alveolar membranes, or stiffening of the lung, or anything that interferes with the movement of the diaphragm and ancillary respiratory muscles, and can alter pulmonary function.
pulmonary hypertension
A type of high blood pressure that affects the arteries in the lungs and the right side of the heart.
pulmonary system
The system of organs and tissues that are involved in breathing. It includes the nose, mouth, trachea, bronchi, and lungs, as well as the muscles and nerves that control breathing. Its primary function is to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide between the body and the environment.
A branch of medicine that specializes in diagnosing and treating diseases of the lungs and other parts of the respiratory system. These diseases include asthma, emphysema, tuberculosis, and pneumonia.
Purkinje system
Consists of the electrical system of the heart. It controls how fast the heart beats.
A bacterial infection of the kidneys, usually caused by a urinary tract infection that spreads to the upper urinary tract. It can cause fever, back pain, and other symptoms and can lead to serious complications if left untreated.
A molecule that is produced during the breakdown of glucose in the body. It plays a key role in energy metabolism and is an important intermediate in many biochemical pathways.

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