Definitions of terms and regulations

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There are currently 16 glossary in this directory beginning with the letter G.
The basic unit of heredity, composed of a specific sequence of DNA that codes for a particular protein or trait. Genes are responsible for determining many of an organism's characteristics, from eye color to susceptibility to certain diseases.
gene therapy
The introduction of genes into an afflicted individual for therapeutic purposes.
genetic disease
A genetic disease is a condition that is caused by an abnormality in an individual's DNA. This abnormality can be inherited from a parent, or it can occur spontaneously.
The scientific study of heredity and hereditary variation.
The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete compliment of an organism’s or virus’s genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences.
genomic sequencing
A laboratory method that is used to determine the entire genetic makeup of an organism or cell type.
The genetic makeup, or set of alleles, of an organism.
glomerular filtration rate (GFR)
The rate which blood is filtered.
Tiny structures in the kidneys that filter blood and remove waste products from the body. They are made up of small blood vessels called capillaries and play an important role in maintaining normal kidney function.
A condition in which the glomeruli in the kidneys become damaged or scarred, leading to impaired kidney function. This can be caused by a number of factors, including high blood pressure, diabetes, and certain autoimmune diseases.
A hormone that is produced by the pancreas and plays an important role in regulating blood sugar levels in the body. It stimulates the liver to release glucose into the bloodstream, which can help to counteract low blood sugar levels.
A type of sugar that is found in many foods and is the primary source of energy for the body's cells. It is transported through the bloodstream and is used by cells to produce ATP, which is the energy currency of the body.
A metabolic pathway that occurs in the cytoplasm of cells and is responsible for breaking down glucose into smaller molecules that can be used to produce ATP. It is the first step in cellular respiration and is an essential process for the production of energy in the body.
goblet cells
Goblet cells arise from pluripotent stem cells and derive their name from their goblet, cup-like appearance. The primary function of goblet cells is to secrete mucin and create a protective mucus layer.
Good Manufacturing Practices (GMP)
Good manufacturing practices enforced by the FDA.
guanosine triphosphate (GTP)
A molecule used by cells to store energy. It is similar to ATP but plays a different role in the cell.

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