Definitions of terms and regulations

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There are currently 15 glossary in this directory beginning with the letter I.
The half-maximal inhibitory concentration.
Medications that suppress the immune system to prevent it from attacking transplanted organs, treating autoimmune disorders, or preventing rejection of transplanted tissue. These medications can also increase the risk of infection and certain types of cancer.
infectious disease
Illnesses caused by bacteria, viruses, or fungi that enter the body, multiply, and can cause an infection.
inferior vena cava
The largest vein in your body.
A natural process in the body that is characterized by redness, swelling, warmth, pain, and sometimes loss of function. It is the body's response to injury, infection, or irritation, and involves a complex network of cells and chemicals that work together to protect the body from harmful stimuli.
innate immunity
Innate, or nonspecific, immunity is the defense system with which you were born. It protects you against all antigens. Innate immunity involves barriers that keep harmful materials from entering your body.
institutional review board (IRB)
A group that has been formally designated to review and monitor biomedical research involving human subjects.
A hormone produced by the pancreas that regulates the level of glucose in the blood. Insulin helps glucose to enter the body's cells, where it is used for energy or stored for future use. In people with diabetes, the body either does not produce enough insulin or does not respond to it properly, leading to high blood sugar levels.
integumentary system
The outer covering of a mammal’s body, including skin, hair, and nails, claws, or hooves.
Situated or taking place within, or administered into, a muscle.
The fluid filled space between the thin layers of tissue that cover the brain and spinal cord.
Existing or taking place within, or administered into, a vein or veins.
intravitreal injection
A shot of medicine to the eye.
investigational new drug (IND)
A substance that has been tested in the laboratory and has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for testing in people. Clinical trials test how well investigational new drugs work and whether they are safe to use. An investigational new drug may be approved by the FDA for use in one disease or condition but still be considered investigational in other diseases or conditions. Also called experimental drug, IND, investigational agent, and investigational drug.
An atom or molecule that has an electrical charge, either positive or negative, due to the gain or loss of one or more electrons. Ions play a critical role in many physiological processes, such as nerve and muscle function, and the transport of nutrients and waste products across cell membranes.

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